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Primary socialization is the early period in an individual’s life where they learn and develop themselves through interactions and experiences around them. In this article, we shall discuss the socialization process in detail. 

Why Primary Socialization is Critical for Children

Primary Socialization Is Critical For Children

Primary socialisation for children lays down the foundation for all future socialization. The process of socialization takes place when a child learns factors that are ideal for people from a particular culture. These factors include:

  • Cultural practices
  • Attitudes 
  • Social norms
  • Values
  • Actions

Usually, the immediate family members and friends influence primary socialization. 

·       An Example of Primary Socialization

Let us assume a child hears his parents saying nasty words about older persons. The child will grow up knowing that the act is acceptable in society. As a result, they will start bad-mouthing older persons. 

·       Other Forms of Socialization

Other Forms Of Socialization

Apart from the primary socialization process, there are four other socializing agents types, as we shall discuss below. 

Secondary Socialization 

Secondary socialization takes place when human beings learn appropriate behavior that they should exhibit in a small group. In this case, this small group represents the larger society. Changes in attitudes, values and individual beliefs are usually less critical than those that he makes while engaging in the larger society. 

·       An Example of Secondary Socialization

A middle school graduate picks a career in Business Administration after participating in a small career group conference. 

Developmental Socialization

This form of socialization comprises a learning process that focuses on enhancing a person’s social skills. Case in point: a reserved middle school student starts teaching English to new students in a bid to build their verbal communication skills. 

·       Anticipatory Socialization

Anticipatory socialization is the process where an individual prepares for future social interactions. Case in point: a child looks forward to parenthood as he watches his parents execute their daily functions.


Anticipatory Socialization


Resocialization involves renouncing former behavioral patterns and adopting new ones. By so doing, individuals can switch from one side of their life to another. Experts opine that resocialization occurs all through the human life cycle.

What are the Components of Personality Development?

Sigmund Freud, the creator, and physician behind psychoanalysis designed a personality development theory. The theory declares that: societal influences and biological instincts define what an individual grows into as an adult.

According to Freud, the mind comprises three components. That is the superego, id, and ego. These three components must collaborate to facilitate successful interaction with and become a part of society. When one of these components becomes dominant or surpasses the others, the person may experience personal and social problems. 

·       Identity Manifests First

Freud says that out of the three components, the identity is not only the most important, but it also manifests first. It is the identity that triggers an individual to develop self-concept and strictly behave for their pleasure.

The mind of a newborn only comprises the identity because the only things they need are physical desires. The superego evolves while a person transitions into adulthood. It is called the evolution of conscience. At this point, the person understands the various societal norms available and follows them. 

·       The Ego Progresses into Late Teenage

The ego grows into late teenage and adulthood. It is the section of the mind that settles conflicts between the superego and the id. Ego enables an individual to make reasonable decisions that obey societal rules.  

What Other Experts Say

The primary socialization theory is a diverse concept. Many experts have covered it, as we shall see below. 

·       Jean Piaget on Cognitive Development

In his 1936’s theory of cognitive development, Jean Piaget illustrates how a child fabricates a mental design of the world. He opposed the concept that intelligence was a predetermined trait. Jean considered cognitive development to be a process that results from interacting with the environment and biological maturity. 

·       Kohlberg’s Stages on Moral Development

Lawrence Kohlberg’s moral developmental stages comprise a modification of a psychological approach that Jean Piaget devised. Kohlberg established three key terms and levels of moral reasoning. They are:

  • Pre-conventional
  • Conventional, and
  • Post-conventional

Each level features two sub-stages, and people can only transition through them as they are in the above order. Every new stage replaces the reasoning displayed in the previous phase. 

How does Primary Socialization Help Children Become Social Beings?

Socialization is critical for children who start the process from home, surrounded by family members, and continue with it at school. Children understand the expectations of the social class as they develop and become mature members of society.

Socialization is also critical for adults who associate with new social situations. It is crucial to understand that primary and secondary socialization factors may indirectly influence deviance and drug use. They may also encourage other substance use and this may trigger mental health problems.

What are the Objectives of Socialization?

Jeffrey J. Arnett interpreted the three fundamental objectives of socialization as follows. 

On the first objective, socialization helps people grow a conscience and instills impulse control. People acquire this objective as they develop in a specific society. They inherit the expectations of the people around them and rely on them to grow a conscience and restrain their impulses. 

The second socialization concept teaches people how to formulate and execute particular occupational, social, and gender roles. It also educates the functions of institutions like parenthood and marriage.

The third objective develops shared authorities of value and meaning. Primary socialization helps children to establish what is critical and valuable in a particular culture. 

Importance of Socialization 

Socialization with other children and adults outside the family lays the foundation where various aspects of childhood socialization development are ingrained. Exposing children to the outside world from an early age is crucial as it instills in them self-confidence. This approach also helps them to overcome shyness.

For children to live in society successfully, they need to interact with other people healthily and positively. It is crucial to watch over and encourage children, and instill in them productive methods of interacting with adults and their peers.

Parents should develop these skills over time, through teachings, strengthening, and practice. A childcare center provides a supportive and safe space for children to understand different cultures.

Why Children Should Learn a Second Language at an Early Age

Second Language At An Early Age

One of the reasons why children should learn a second language at an early age is; they understand easily and fast. Again, they have more time to learn, and minimal distractions. Their brain is also structured for learning languages with ease. By enrolling your child in a second language class you save them from struggling to learn a new language as adults.

It is worth mentioning that competing on a global scale today is critical for a successful career. In many occupations currently, speaking at least one foreign language increases your value and makes you marketable to any organization. Teaching your children foreign languages from an early age prepares them for a successful future. Read on for more reasons on why your child should learn a new language. 

·       Cognitive Advancement

Learning a foreign language comes with various cognitive benefits. According to experts, bilingual children have better critical thinking and problem-solving skills than their monolingual counterparts. They also have better memory, more creativity, a flexible mind, and better multi-tasking skills. Teaching children a new language early life offers them a chance to develop excellent cognitive benefits. These developments help them excel both academically and in their careers in the future. 

·       Linguistic Skills

Many people opine that learning a new language confuses or hinders a child’s linguistic development in their native language. However, research shows that children who learn a different language post better results in their native language compared to their peers who speak only one language. Studying grammatical structures in other languages helps children enhance their grammar in their indigenous language. 

·       Improvement of Empathy

Studying a foreign language introduces children to new grammatical structures and vocabulary. It can also help them understand different cultures. Studies indicate that bilingual children do better on tests that demand an individual’s point of view to figure out their meaning.

The cultural knowledge and empathy that children acquire from studying a different language helps them in various aspects of their life. These vary from understanding their associates within the workplace, to playing at school. 

Secondary Socialization Occurs Between Childhood to Adulthood

In socialization, family members, peer groups, mass media, and educational institutions in the United States influence an individual. Secondary socialization, on the other hand, takes place from childhood to adulthood where a person comes across new groups. In this case, they have to assume new functions to engage in society successfully.

However, this process comprises smaller changes compared to those involved in primary socialization. Further, it is related to adolescents and adults. In secondary socialization, a person starts to engage in larger societies or smaller groups. Due to this, they should be in a position to behave suitably.  

Primary Socialization is a Lifelong Process

Primary socialization occurs between infancy, childhood, and all through to early teens, where someone develops their personality and key principal identity. All along this process, an individual structures their self-awareness and self-image through social experience. Join us now to learn more comprehensive details on primary socialization.